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Digital Transformation

 

Big data in global competition

Big data is a term that describes the large volume of both structured and unstructured data in an organization. Rather than the amount of data, how the organization use that data is important. Big data can be analysed to reveal insights for better decision making process and strategic business moves of an organization.

In this study, the importance of big data concept for the institutions and organizations; the impact of big data on their strategic development and the benefits that it would provide for business enterprises are taken into account. As a first step, the enterprises should make an overall situation assessment of their position with respect to big data studies. As a second step, information technologies should be made more efficient in data control, data analysis and data evaluation systems in order to use this information in strategic decision-making and policy making processes of the organizations.

Big data is helpful for the enterprises in decision-making, cost reduction and enhancement of products and services. The three main assets that big data brings to enterprises are considered as ‘development of new products and services, using complicated analysis methods in decision-making and value creation with detailed information for the organization.

Education Innovation in Digital Transformation
Digital technologies have profound effects on economy and society. These technologies change working, communication, social activities and self-training ways of people. On the other hand, digital technologies direct people to make innovation in different areas. Technological innovation capacity of a country depends on the population’s level of digital skills. There is no doubt that there is a strong relationship between education/skills and use of digital technologies in different realms. For this reason, the role of education and skills is significant in encouraging innovation.

In spite of the fact that digital technologies have great potential in development and increase of learning capacities, it impact on education is limited. The big investments carried out in schools for (ICT) Information and Communication Technologies have not transformed education and training practises at the desired level for the time being. The discussions with respect to potential of digital technologies in education are in progress and innovation takes place as part of a comprehensive approach in this process. While education systems and institutions change, there can be obstacles in efficient use of digital technologies in education and training practices. Digital transformation of schools is not an easy process and an integrated system approach is a requirement for innovation in education with the support of policies and stakeholders.

Engineering Skills within the framework of Industry 4.0.
It is estimated that the developments in techniques of big data, autonomous robots, simulation, universal system integration, internet of things, cyber security, cloud computing, additive manufacturing and augmented reality would reshape manufacturing industry in 10-15 years. The smart factory is an environment where machinery and equipment are able to improve processes through automation and self-optimization. Beyond production of goods, smart factory brings benefits as planning, supply chain logistics and product development. The structure of a smart factory includes a combination of production, information and communication technologies. In addition to this, the factory has the potential for integration across the entire manufacturing supply chain.

After digital transformation process of industry and enterprises has been completed, process management becomes an important issue in terms of a combination of production, information and communication technologies in an efficient way. Furthermore, data security policy of the businesses against cyber-attacks becomes more critical. Data security refers to protective digital privacy measures that are applied to prevent unauthorized access to computers, databases and websites. Data security is an essential aspect of information-communication technologies for every size and type organization. For this reason, organizations have to recruit experts in digital transformation process and data security system.

Industry 4.0 is a challenging concept for engineering design and engineering training. Engineers are going to work in smart manufacturing environments. In addition to mechanics, electronics and production techniques, they need to be specialized in information communication technologies, software and coding as well. There is a need for engineering profession to reshape and develop their knowledge and skills in line with requirements of Industry 4.0. and smart factories.

Digital Transformation of Manufacturing Industry

Many terms are used for referring to digital transformation of manufacturing industry such as ‘Industry 4.0.’, ‘smart manufacturing’, ‘fourth industrial revolution’, and ‘internet of things’. Digitization is the process of converting information into a digital (i.e. computer-readable) format and the technologies of digitization enable the conversion of traditional forms of information storage such as paper and photographs into the binary code (ones and zeros) of computer storage. This is the process of converting analog signals into digital signals. By this process efficient and effective data management, data storage, data transfer and data analysis become possible. Furthermore, in comparison to traditional methods, all these transactions are carried out at lower costs.

Fourth industrial revolution will be realized by combination of various technologies. These are various digital technologies (3D printing, internet of things, smart robots), nanotechnologies, biotechnologies and new processes (cloud computing, augmented reality, synthetic biology and artificial intelligence). There is a consensus that digital transformation of manufacturing industry by combination of various technologies would bring great opportunities in terms of productivity, efficiency, elasticity, speed, quality, competitiveness, and welfare increase.

On the other hand, in order to use this opportunities many improvements have to be made in areas of policy planning, public investments, public incentives and legislative regulations.

E- Transformation Turkey Project
Turkey has taken considerable steps in its e-transformation process to catch up with developed countries. The planning and studies with respect to E-Transformation Turkey Project are carried out in an effective way. The objectives of e-transformation in Strategic Plan 2015-2018 are expected to be completed by the end of this year. In the following period, ‘mobile application’, cyber security, cloud computing, big data, social media, bio-technology, augmented reality, big data, autonomous robots, simulation, universal system integration, internet of things, cyber security, cloud computing, additive manufacturing and augmented reality, Industry 4.0. and artificial intelligence are the headings that would form the dynamics of new strategic plan. With considerable e-transformation studies and developments in the last 20 years, Turkey should aim at technology production and exporting new technologies. The institutions and organizations are in e-transformation process with new products such as e-government, e-signature, and e-commerce and e-government gateway. These new products should be developed for global competition.

The Impact of Industry 4.0. on Logistic Sector

The firms that are active in logistic sector, which is dynamic and shows continuous improvement in the world, have to develop their skills (expertise, know-how, technology and innovation) constantly and use their resources (financial, physical, human resources) in an efficient way in order to survive in global competition. Logistic activities take place in main processes of manufacturing industry and have an important effect on competitive power of industry. Because of this interaction, digital transformation of manufacturing industry has similar impacts on logistic sector. Within this context, it is expected that logistics sector would be under influence of Industry 4.0. , which incorporates information and communication technologies to all process of manufacturing industry and product life-cycle.

Information-communication technologies in Industry 4.0. enable logistic sector to reduce inventory costs and bring efficiency by use of new vehicles, fuel and energy resources in a productive way. As a conclusion, Industry 4.0 would increase production efficiency which leads to increase in logistics activities.