Industry, Production and Control


Electronic switching elements that used for controlling energy flow is defined as power electronics. Power electronics are used for conversion of electric power as well. This conversion is carried out by semi conductive elements such as diode, transistor, and thryistor. Power electronics elements have advantages in terms of simple circuit and compact design and they are used in many fields involving energy, ICT, defence industry and consumer electronics products.

Power electronics market has a rapid growth trend in recent years and continuation of this growth is estimated in the following years. Main reason of this situation is constant development and use of semi conductive electronics in new areas. Global market volume for power electronics is calculated as 12.9 billion dollars for 2015, 14.89 for 2016 and it is estimated to be 45 billion dollars in 2024. Technologic developments, increase of fields of application, electronic vehicles, demand for high power density and widespread use of power electronics elements in electric network have a positive impact on the growth of power electronics market.

Basic trends observed in power electronics market are high investment in research and development, increase of power electronics use in various sectors and high demand for energy consumption. The companies of power electronics reallocate considerable amount of their income for R&D studies. Research and development (R&D) is critical for producers because only high innovation brings competitive power among rivals in the power electronics devices market. In addition to R&D studies, productivity has a key importance for power electronics producers, and productivity growth is only possible with R&D. Due to these factors, high share for R&D spending in power electronics is expected to continue for the companies.
Diminishing of fossil fuel and increasing energy costs necessitated energy saving. For this reason, big producers in power electronics use energy efficiency methods to protect their competitive power. Some of the producers try for increasing energy density and it affects costs of power electronics devices. Due to these factors, it is expected that the costs of power electronics devices are going to rise in the next five years. Energy density would increase energy efficiency so that end users would be saving energy for long time.

Power electronics has been developing for the last 30 years and it continues to grow with new areas of usage. Recent developments in semiconductor technology have a big role in growth of power electronics market. Renewable energy, smart grids and electric vehicles have contributed to development of power electronics sector. Investment in semiconductor technologies is the only way to have share in this competitive sector.

Immunity from production inputs is given to industrial producers for the products within the framework of the ‘Import Control Notification for the Products Bearing CE Marking (2018/9)’ and ‘Import Control Notification for Vehicle Components (2018/25). By means of these two notifications, a certificate of exemption is prepared for the products stated under custom tariffs statistics position (CTSP).
Therefore, ‘Import Control Notification for the Products Bearing CE Marking (2018/9)’ and ‘Import Control Notification for Vehicle Components (2018/25) are certificates of exemption that have been given by Provincial Directorates of Industry and Technology to industrial producers. The certificates are prepared for the importation of products during production process without control.


Productivity analysis is the comparison and evaluation of the results of the measurements via objective criterion. In other words, it is calculation of the share of each production input that lead to product cost. This analysis is helpful for deciding to cut down on expenses and for monitoring the results of improvement activities. Productivity measurement is a tool for understanding the growth of the system rather than productivity growth method. Productivity rate is determining the decision-making process.

Productivity analyses are one of the important indicators that show the economic performance of the enterprise. Productivity measurement is a road map for identification of the problems and the weaknesses in the enterprise. Detection of the inefficient work processes, departments and business conduct is crucial for developing solutions. Accordingly, productivity measurement is a guide to corporate management for improvement and resource efficiency.

This study underlines the importance of productivity and uses Data Envelopment Analysis for an implementation in accredited institutions and technical services by the Ministry. The purpose is to create a model involving study results and to indicate the importance of scientific methods in productivity measurement. This study is expected to be helpful for decision makers in accredited institutions and technical services.


Chemistry sector is significant for the producers and end users in terms of product variety. Chemical products are indispensable for industrial sector and the consumers. However, harmful effects of some chemicals on human health can lead to death. In addition, some chemicals damage the environment seriously. In order to ensure protection of human health and environment, to provide effective functioning of internal market and to sustain competitiveness of the chemical sector, European Commission prepared a road map in February 27, 2001 for a legislation. ‘White Paper: Strategy for a future Chemicals Policy’ Report has been published in official gazette of European Union. The purpose of the roadmap is development of chemicals policy and joint evaluation of all chemicals in the Union.

REACH is a regulation of the European Union that is adopted to improve the protection of human health and the environment from the risks of the chemicals. Meanwhile the regulation works for enhancing the competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry. In addition, REACH promotes alternative methods for the hazard assessment of substances in order to reduce the number of tests on animals. REACH stands for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1 June 2007.

This regulation involves all chemical substances used in industrial processes and in our daily lives such as cleaning products, paints, clothes, furniture and electrical appliances. For this reason, REACH has an impact on most companies in EU. Manufacturers, importers, and downstream users will probably have some important responsibilities under REACH. Companies established outside the EU are not bound by the obligations of REACH even they export their products into the customs territory of the European Union.
The companies have to comply with the regulation by identifying and managing the risks linked to the substances they manufacture and market in the EU. They have to show to European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) how the substance can be safely used and they must communicate the risk management measures to the users. If the risks cannot be managed, authorities can restrict the use of the substances in different ways. In the long term, the most hazardous substances should be substituted with less dangerous ones.

REACH establishes procedures for collecting and assessing information on the properties and hazards of substances. Companies need to register their substances and they need to work together with other companies who are registering the same substance.

ECHA receives and evaluates individual registrations for their compliance, and the EU member States evaluate selected substances to clarify initial concerns for human health or for the environment. Authorities and ECHA’s scientific committees assess whether the risk of substances can be managed. Authorities can ban hazardous substances if their risks are unmanageable. They can also decide to restrict its use or make it subject to a prior authorisation.