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Science and Technology Policies

 

Message from Fikri Işık, Minister of Science, Industry and Technology

After the reorganization in public institutions, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology has created a structure that focuses more on production of knowledge, university-industry cooperation and commercialization of knowledge. In this direction, our ministry has carried out remarkable studies concerning strategy plans, entrepreneurship, SME’s and R&D supports, university-industry cooperation, R&D Centres and Technology Parks under the leadership of Nihat Ergün. From now on, we would strive for development and enhancement of these remarkable studies. In this process, studies of Directorate General for Productivity would be important for our Ministry.

New Tendencies Influencing Science and Technology Policies
Science, technology and innovation are accepted as the engine of sustainable development and economic growth today. In other words, science, technology and innovation policies are guiding rules of modern economy. Furthermore, forthcoming previsions and tendencies in terms of science, technology and innovation policies are in the focus of global discussions. Two important trends that would impact science& technology policies and economies in the future have been stressed. One of them is discipline of biotechnology which provides sustainable production with high added value by use of genetic science and techniques on biological systems. Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary science that have practices in many areas such as energy, medical science, food, industry and environment. Another tendency that have a deep impact on policies is nanotechnology which has been used to derive products in desired forms by controlling substance in atomic and molecular levels. Nanotechnology and biotechnology affect many sectors and considered as the epoch making technologies of the 21st century.

Science- Industry- Technology Policies
Following scientific and technological developments and deriving benefit from them in an appropriate way hold key for global competitive advantage and social welfare. In this regard, having a clear conception in terms of ‘production and use of scientific knowledge and methods as the basis of technology and innovation’ and ‘accompany of scientific knowledge and methods to development’ have been important. Today what is seen in this concept is that developed economies and rising economies pick out methods in configuration and implementation of science- industry- technology policies considering country and global conditions. Science- industry- technology policies of a country has to be developed by taking into account country conditions, the position of country in current global structure and country advantages. There are two policy tools in this concept such as ‘foresight studies’ and ‘public- university- industry cooperation practices’.

The Role of Science and Technology Policies in Country’s Development Level
Creation and implementation of effective science and technology policies with the aim of production and use of science and technology in a coordinated and systemic way matter for countries in terms of reaching the desired development level. Science and technology are one of the most important elements of social and economic development and science and technology policies are the tool to affect the speed and direction of this development. All socially and economically developed countries in the world (USA, Japan, many EU countries) have improved their science and technology vision in line with long term social, economic and political targets and while updating their vision they use technology foresight studies as an effective tool.

Public R&D Supports
When R&D supports given in our country are taken into consideration, it is seen that Technology Parks (52 technology parks, 38 of them active) and Private Sector R&D Centres (150 centres) stand out which has been formed within the context of Law No: 4691 on the Technology Development Zones and Law No: 5746 on the Support of R&D Activities executed by Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology. Nearly 35 thousand R&D employees are employed and 3,5 billion R&D expenditure realized in these centres by 2012.

Scientific Diplomacy and Planning of Ministry’s Foreign Organization

Scientific diplomacy covers three different activities as (1) science in diplomacy which means execution of all foreign policies and relations on a rational ground; (2) diplomacy for science which means searching for international scientific cooperation and (3) science for diplomacy which means drawing benefit from scientific cooperation ground for establishment and empowerment of diplomatic relations.
The transfer of knowledge into industry, which comes out as a result of a country’s science & technology policies in practice and scientific researches, provides development of countries in a sustainable and systematic way. In this framework, scientific diplomacy activities, which have been a new perspective in terms of practising national strategies of technology and innovation and carrying out these strategies to international grounds, have started in our Ministry and important steps have been taken about foundation of foreign organization.

The technology of 21st century: Biotechnology and its scope of application

Biotechnology is explained ‘as change of alive and dead organisms for knowledge accumulation, production of goods and services and application of science and technology to live organisms, products and models’ and shown among milestone technologies of 21st century. Technologic developments and innovation that this discipline provides are shown as potential for solution of global problems. Biotechnology, with information communication technologies, creates employment for 22 million people in EU countries and has 1.5 trillion euro market share. Therefore it has become one of the biggest growing industries of 21st century. Biotechnology is used in many fields as food, agriculture, energy, environment...etc but as a general framework it has three main branches as Industrial, Agro and Medical Biotechnology.

Nanotechnology and its field of use
The countries that realize big investments in nanotechnology have big expectations from the discipline. It is assumed that this technology would change the lives of people drastically and epoch-making inventions would be made. Some of these groundbreaking inventions are as follows:
• Placing huge mass of documents, books and papers into a device small as a lump sugar,
• Bringing atoms and molecules together in order to produce materials and goods and reducing environmental pollution to a great extent,
• Developing materials ten times stronger but lighter from steel and producing sea, air and land vehicles that consume less fuel,
• Developing faster memory cards and transistors in order to accelerate operation systems and increasing speed and productivity of computers,
• Diagnosing cancerous cells with the methods that have been produced by nanotechnology engineering,

National Nanotechnology, R&D and Innovation Strategy and Action Plan Studies
The Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology have started preparation of National Nanotechnology, R&D and Innovation Strategy and Action Plan. In this framework, literature and legislation review has been completed and a workshop with participation of people having knowledge and experience in nanotechnology including academicians, industrialists and public sector employees has been organized in June, 14, 2012. The results of the workshop has been annexed to the action plan and the last draft has been sent to academicians and private sector representatives. The studies on the draft of National Nanotechnology, R&D and Innovation Strategy and Action Plan have been going on and to finalize the action plan in 2014 has been purposed.

Productivity Congress IV held in Ankara
Productivity Congress IV, which has been organized and hosted by Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology, has been held in December 10-12, 2013 at Bilkent Hotel Convention Centre. Universities, public institutions and organizations, professional associations, nongovernmental organizations and representatives of business world have participated in the congress. The congress has lasted for three days and ‘Undersecretaries Session’, ‘The Role of Productivity in Overcoming Middle-Income Trap Panel’, 24 invited papers in 8 sessions and 57 refereed papers in 16 sessions have taken place in the congress.